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Revisiting the Boston Movement: ICOC growing again after crisis

A decade after ‘the roof caved in,’ the International Churches of Christ change their leadership structure and discipling approach as they refocus on reaching the lost.

SAN ANTONIO — Ten years ago, a crisis gripped the International Churches of Christ — once known as the Boston Movement.
Long-simmering concerns over the movement’s top-down hierarchy, aggressive discipling techniques and sectarianism seemed to threaten the ICOC’s future.
Steve Kinnard, teacher and evangelist for the 3,000-member New York City Church of Christ, recalls that period as a “time of discipline” by God.
“We got haughty. We got a bit Pharisaical in our attitude and our approach,” said Kinnard, a Freed-Hardeman University Bible graduate who joined the movement in 1981. “God said, ‘You guys need to stop for a minute and rethink some things.’ Now, I think we’re in a much better place than we’ve ever been.”
In what ICOC leaders characterized as a milestone moment, 17,800 believers filled the San Antonio Spurs’ basketball arena for the recent World Discipleship Summit.
Men, women and children from 96 nations came together as the ICOC — a global discipling movement with roots in mainline Churches of Christ — openly acknowledged past sins while voicing a renewed commitment to reaching lost souls.
“Back in the 1990s, we were baptizing a lot of people … and we sure were proud of it,” Mike Taliaferro, lead evangelist for the 400-member Mission Point Christian Church in San Antonio, told the overflow crowd at the AT&T Center. “We should have never been the message. Christ and him crucified should have always been the message.

“Yes, tell the Good News, but put a lid on the cocky, proud bragging,” he said to loud applause.
The ICOC’s reported membership hit a high of 135,000 in 2002 — the same year worldwide leader Kip McKean stepped aside.
McKean, whose singular control prompted some to label the ICOC a cult, confessed to the sin of arrogance and said his leadership had “damaged both the Kingdom and my family.” He later left the movement.
By 2006, worldwide membership plummeted to less than 89,000 — a 34 percent decline.
“The roof caved in …  and it was completely our fault,” Taliaferro said.
But the numbers have started rising again: A survey this summer showed 97,800 members in 610 churches in 148 countries, ICOC leaders said. That’s a 10 percent increase in the past six years.
Taliaferro, an Abilene Christian University graduate, described the ICOC’s efforts to right its wrongs as the movement’s “finest hour.” But he suggested members have lost their passion for evangelism.
“How long’s it been since you went and made a disciple?” he asked the crowd. “When thousands of us decide not to share our faith, millions perish.”
Evertt Huffard, vice president and dean of Harding Graduate School of Religion in Memphis, Tenn., attended the summit and said he witnessed a “humble spirit” among those present.
“I saw a group who have learned from their mistakes and have tried to respond accordingly,” Huffard said. “My feeling is, if mainstream Churches of Christ were ever so open and honest about the mistakes of our past and responded accordingly, we’d be a healthier, growing church today.”
First known as the Crossroads Movement and later the Boston Movement, the ICOC traces its roots to the late 1960s. The movement developed in the campus ministry of Chuck Lucas at the Crossroads Church of Christ in Gainesville, Fla., as that ministry began baptizing many college students.
Lucas later converted McKean, who called 30 disciples to be totally committed to Christ. In 1979, McKean’s group planted the fast-growing Boston Church of Christ, which became the center of the discipling movement. In 1988, the Crossroads church disassociated itself from the movement.
“In the less-than-half-century existence of the movement, many thousands have been brought to Christ through its works,” said Doug Foster, a church history professor at ACU. “Many thousands also have been burned out and left the ICOC and sometimes Christianity altogether.”
In the early 1990s, the ICOC formally split from the mainline Churches of Christ. In 2004, some leaders from both groups shared tears and apologies at a meeting during the ACU lectureship.
At that reunion — described as a first step toward healing — ICOC leaders apologized for the authoritarian discipling techniques and “judgmental elitism” that led many away from the movement and created friction with mainline churches.
Representatives of mainline churches apologized for using “cult” as a careless label in referring to the ICOC and for years of mistrust between the two groups, The Christian Chronicle reported.
Among the concerns the ICOC has attempted to address:
Top-down hierarchy: At one time, nine individual leaders of world sectors reported to McKean.
That authority structure has been scrapped and replaced with voluntary cooperation and collaboration by congregations, said Roger Lamb, president of Disciples Today, a nonprofit media organization that serves the ICOC.
About 93 percent of ICOC churches support the group’s Plan for United Cooperation.
“There is no headquarters,” Lamb said. “Various brothers are selected to serve in cooperation roles for three years at a time. We firmly believe we are stronger together than apart and that, as Christians, we should ‘make every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.’”
Aggressive discipling techniques: In the past, discipling partners sometimes exerted too much control and influence over converts, ICOC leaders acknowledge.
“Now, we very much believe that we should be involved in each other’s lives in a godly way by practicing the ‘one another Scriptures,’” Lamb said, “and we believe that God gave us the church as a family to help us in our Christian walk.”
Taliaferro said: “We were too pushy in the past. Today, we have deep convictions in this area. Advice is good. But no one gives orders. So, yes, we try not to baptize someone and then desert that person. We believe strongly in discipling, and we believe very strongly that it should be done right.”
Sectarianism: As the Boston Movement began planting daughter congregations, it became clear that some of its leaders did not consider members of mainline Churches of Christ to be Christians.
“Today, I believe that arrogance is gone,” Taliaferro said. “We truly are a non-denominational church. We’ve learned a lot about grace. Anyone, in any century or any continent, who believes the message, repents and is baptized is saved.
“We in the ICOC do not believe ourselves to be ‘the one true church,’” he added. “Honestly, at times we have been ‘the one big mess.’ We believe that Jesus established one church, and you are in that church or not based on the Bible. So we simply claim to be a part of the one church he established on the day of Pentecost.”
In recent years, ICOC churches have sent a number of ministry students to universities associated with mainline Churches of Christ — including Harding School of Theology, ACU, Lipscomb, Lubbock Christian and Pepperdine.
“We’re heavy on teaching and biblical studies, and they’re heavy on evangelism,” Huffard said. “We’ve got some things to learn from each other.”
Steve Staten, teacher and evangelist with the Chicago ICOC, which has 1,800 members scattered across seven locations, agreed.
“Those of us who do have education are spending a whole lot more time teaching ministry staff,” said Staten, who has a master’s degree in theology and is pursuing a master’s in conflict management through Lipscomb.
Like mainline Churches of Christ, ICOC churches believe in baptism for the forgiveness of sins and partake of the Lord’s Supper each Sunday.
Unlike the a cappella fellowship, a majority of ICOC churches use instruments in worship assemblies.
“We don’t really have a concept of instrumental or non-instrumental,” Lamb said. “All of our churches love and sing a cappella music beautifully. Many will also use instruments when the occasion and talent calls for it. We are mostly trying to focus on what will exalt God.” 

  • Feedback
    God has given mankind the greatest gift, the ability to change our lives and repent of our sins, through the gift of the Holy Spirit of Jesus Christ! Jesus Christ will never give up on any person on this earth because God loves us so very much. God is our greatest friend and friends of God will help one another to go to heaven. Fellow Christian, are you God’s friend? Let God be the judge of all and let us work out our salvation with fear and trembling. I owe my life to Jesus Christ! because “Jesus is Lord” of all of our lives. I believe friendships is the solution for God’s kingdom to grow forever. Thank you Christian Chronicle for your help. Jesus says,”I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.”
    Jay Buenaventura
    Toronto Church of Christ
    Toronto, Ontario
    Canada
    June, 17 2013
    My wife and I have been members of ICOC churches on and off since 1983. I would caution against one glaring omission of the current ICOC leadership structure. The “Nathans”€ have long ago departed from the ICOC churches and I rarely witness any attempt to draw those belittled disciples back. Many of the same leaders that supported the controlling arrogance of former ICOC evangelists are still in the same positions of influence. Many that objected (“You are the man!”€ II Sam. 12:7) to the “now acknowledged”€ sins at the time they were happening, are gone. I was witness to a horrific split in an ICOC church which drove away those
    “Nathans” but no attempt has been made to go back and apologize for those hurt by that self-righteousness.
    Monty
    Church of Christ
    Vancouver, WA
    USA
    June, 8 2013
    An evangelist, teacher and elder in God’s kingdom is an evangelist, teacher and elder everywhere you go, worldwide! I believe that foreign evangelists that come to North America should be given the opportunity to serve God’s church in their evangelistic role, to help the International Churches of Christ grow, rather than, work at secular jobs in the world. Also, I believe that all the North American evangelists, who live overseas in foreign countries, should continue leading God’s church, as evangelists, teachers and elders everywhere they go, globally, for the strengthening and unity of God’s churches to the glory of God! We need to use God’s gifts of the Holy Spirit to the fullest capacity, so that many souls may be saved. Ephesians 4:8
    Jay Buenaventura
    Toronto Church of Christ
    Toronto, Ontario
    Canada
    May, 21 2013
    All in all, this movement was a disaster for the churches of Christ, dividing college ministries from their parent congregations, offering an opportunity for eager though mis-guided young people to pressure others into making decisions that were not good for them (such as disassociating from their parents), and to learn a haughty attitude toward other Christians. Of those around at the time, who can forget when the movement declared itself the modern “remnant” of God? Then the group itself splintered. No mention in this article that Kip McKean is at it again, dividing his own, or the millions of wasted dollars that could have done more permanent good. There were reasons for the movement but not for its chosen divisiveness.
    Rob Pinion
    None
    Tampa, Florida
    USA
    March, 25 2013
    God bless every disciple of Jesus Christ to, zealously, raise up to be a great leader in God’s kingdom! God bless every true Christian to lead the way, whether seen or unseen, in making disciples of all nations, prayer to God, deeper bible studies, bible studies with friends and worship service to God. God bless all followers of Jesus Christ, from the greatest to the least, to lead by example in righteousness, holiness, purity, reverence, faithfulness, fruitfulness, forgiveness and grace. God bless the family of believers to be humble servants willing to suffer and die to sins for Jesus Christ and obey God’s word, daily, in our lifetime! God bless our worldwide churches because we all belong together, forever and ever. 1 Corinthians12:27-31
    Jay Buenaventura
    Toronto Church of Christ
    Toronto, Ontario
    Canada
    March, 15 2013
    I am very thankful for my American brothers and sisters, in U.S.A., for sacrificing their lives for Jesus Christ and preaching God’s word to, almost, every major city, country and continent, around the world! I am thankful for my International brothers and sisters for raising up to lead God’s humble churches around the world and for, courageously, preaching God’s word boldly, in the face of persecution and hardships. You are my heroes in the faith! Praise God. May every disciple of Jesus Christ train and raise up a younger “Timothy” in God’s church- children, teens, campus, singles and marrieds, to be the future leaders and followers of Jesus Christ, in 2013. Will all the mighty men and women of God, please, stand up for Jesus Christ? Amen.
    Jay Buenaventura
    Toronto Church of Christ
    Toronto, Ontario
    Canada
    February, 7 2013
    Speaking of leadership, God hasn’t raised up new voices to lead his people in the last ten years? Of course God has raised up leaders, even though the icoc has gone from a one man show to a more collaborative effort, those same leaders from the past who encouraged the systemtic errors in our past are still involved in it’s recovery. I’m not suggesting they shouldn’t but similarly where are the new voices that will lead further. Have things improved? yes; but I think and know that there are more things that appear like the old icoc than this articles is trying to portray.
    Ryan
    the crossing
    las vegas, nv
    united states
    January, 28 2013
    While there may have been some change in the ICOC we need to be careful in thinking there has been a complete change. Individuals are still leaving at large rates. Many churches are baptizing and getting new members but losing the members they baptized the year before. Some of the old attitude is still prevalent by the old guard. It just isn’t so obvious as it use to be when an evangelist would say from the pulpit blantantly that “we are the only church”, but the attitude still prevails in some particularly in leadership.
    Ryan
    the crossing
    las vegas, Michigan
    United States
    January, 28 2013
    I am very encouraged that a healing process has begun between churches. I grew up with one foot in the main line church and one in the ICOC, with close family on both sides. Many can relate to this I’m sure. I realize that there is still pride and faithlessness found on both sides, but it is my hope and prayer that a time will come when it will not be about who joins who but that it will be about coming together in humility to spread the gospel of truth, in cities that need a church and in cities with a church that may just need some encouragement. Please lets not be discouraged by what still might be but rather be hopeful in what God is doing. Our struggle should not be with each other but against the dark forces of this world.
    Nathan Frost
    Halifax, Dartmouth Church of Christ
    Halifax , Nova Scotia
    Canada
    January, 18 2013
    Has anything great ever happened without a dreamer having a dream? Has anything miraculous ever occurred without a visionary having a vision? For example, consider the past: a rocketship flying to the moon, the Great Wall of China, the San Francisco bridge, the CN Tower, the intelligent computer chip and the forgiveness of mankind’s sins, once and for all! Nothing great or wonderful has ever become reality without workers working towards that dream or vision! What is your dream for God’s kingdom? Are you working towards that dream or vision? Do you want to see the whole world saved and at peace with God? All things are possible with God. Let us preach and teach God’s word, until Jesus comes, again. I love you, all and have a Happy New year!
    Jay Buenaventura
    Toronto Church of Christ
    Toronto, Ontario
    Canada
    December, 29 2012
    Father in heaven, You deserve all glory and honor and praise! Protect us, by your holy name. I pray that we grow to respect, honor and be thankful for our hard-working leaders, who need our continuous encouragement, grace, love and support, so that our leaders work will be a joy! I pray that we grow to have compassion, mercy, love and visions and dreams for all the Christians, who need a sense of belonging to the family of believers and be an important and valuable part of God’s church mission team! I pray for the body of Christ to be unified with God and with one another and that all of us, together as a family of believers, may walk in humility, reverence and awe of God, our Father in heaven and join God in prayer for all the nations.
    Jay Buenaventura
    Toronto Church of Christ
    Toronto, Ontario
    Canada
    November, 5 2012
    Thanks for the article chronicling repentance and God’s discipline. Please continue to pray because we are not out of the woods yet. Some leaders have a natural authoritative bend and are desparately trying to return to the “good old days” when people just did as they were told. Please continue to pray for God to remove stubborn leaders who refuse to repent of a lack of faith and a need to constantly control every step and direction of the church.
    Uche Amudipe
    Philadelphia
    Lafayette Hill, PA
    USA
    October, 10 2012
    It is wonderful to see God can use people when their hearts are in the right place. 2003 was humbling and refocused the Church on God!!! I am overjoyed to be apart of that!!! As a young christian I see too many older folks being afraid of sharing their faith because they are still scarred by 2003!!! I am certain God has forgiven us for that, it is time to preach the gospel!!!! the harvest is ripe
    Hanniff
    Kingston Church of Christ
    Kingston, KSAC
    Jamaica
    September, 10 2012
    Thank you Christian Chronicle for a very refreshing article. It great to see God working in churches around the world.
    Justin Renton
    Jo’burg church of Christ
    Johannesburg, GA
    South Africa
    September, 3 2012
    God blessed my family to be able attend the conference in S.A. Some responses to this article question the sincerity or even the right for us to have held such an event. Should we have to defend ourselves? 24 years ago God granted me – an atheistic, lost, blind soul – repentance. If a just merciful God wanted to do that for an alien, for an enemy – which I was – why would he want any less to grant repentance to a group of people who are sincerely seeking to obey his Word? Jesus Christ himself said, “I tell you, there is rejoicing in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner who repents.” So what if 17,400 sinners repent? If anyone doubts what God is doing, look for the evidence: “times of refreshing”, “fruit”, “deeds”.
    Fred Ichinose
    Grand Rapids Church of Christ
    Grand Rapids, Michigan
    USA
    August, 31 2012
    Our brother, Jay Buenaventura – though we have not met – has addressed all of us several times with an amazing spirit of faith, love, and encouragement with God’s word. I think we should all imitate his example, and if we have to voice any differences from any side, let’s do it with sincerity and a humble heart that is willing to listen with genuine interest.
    Fred Ichinose
    Grand Rapids Church of Christ
    Grand Rapids, Michigan
    USA
    August, 31 2012
    The Lord Jesus Christ himself was the foundation of this ICOC and his blood purchase the sins of all members.To God Be The Glory…
    Orlie G. Dela Cruz
    MMCC
    PASIG, NCR
    PHILIPPINES
    August, 30 2012
    i was baptized june 30 2000 as a young disciple i had no clue the church was going thru major changes…thats the way God wanted it for me. today im so grateful that God has led my life for the last 12 years.God oppresses the proud but give mercy to the humble. we as a church are repenting and i know tha pleases our father.
    joanne
    mission
    san diego, ca
    usa
    August, 28 2012
    As the world becomes darker and darker, a Christian needs to shine their light brighter and brighter! As God’s discipling movement, we need to help one another go to heaven and be with God because God’s love overcomes all barriers and brings us closer and closer to Jesus Christ. Let us never give up on one another, brothers and sisters, so that we can be a part of God’s great and loving family! My life has changed for God, because a few people decided to follow Jesus Christ! and I believe God can, miraculously, change your life and those around you! Matthew 13:31-58
    Jay Buenaventura
    Toronto Church of Christ
    Toronto, Ontario
    Canada
    August, 23 2012
    Thanks Christian Chronicle for publishing the inspairing news. May God keep us united & guide by holy sprit to glorify HIM.
    David Dhali
    Dhaka Church of Christ – ICOC
    Dhaka, Dhaka
    Bangladesh ( Formar East Pakista
    August, 22 2012
    Wow! What a refreshing article…It’s great to hear of our confession of wrongs as whole, and equally refreshing to hear that we are attempting to repent for God’s sake and not to please ourselves.
    Ron Corbett
    Minneapolis/Saint Paul C o C
    Minneapolis, MN
    USA
    August, 18 2012
    http://frankviola.org/2009/09/13/reframing-discipleship-in-ministry-today-is-it-valid-to-pitch-church-planting-discipleship-against-one-another/
    Discipleship is simply community life, body life, modeled after Jesus own ministry with the 12 and others who followed him. It’ll be good to read the link above, the article “Reframing Discipleship.” Its not complicated, just body life with the goal of Christ being formed in us. The rest is the work of the Holy Spirit, the Life of Jesus Christ manifesting in us. Very simple but today’s church (in general) have complicated it. Our flesh has a way of doing that.
    Clark Raulerson
    Gainesville organic church
    High Springs, Florida
    USA
    August, 16 2012
    I have been in the ICOC for 30 years and have seen the good and the bad. It seems there are more good things going on right now while we are trying to address the bad. I was at the Summit and it was fantastic! I was so encouraged to do more for God and help more people in and out of the church. We are working on our humility and we accept the Mainline Churches of Christ as our brothers and sisters. Thank you for the article and the unity that is shown in it. Let’s keep trying to please God and loving other people.
    Jeff Sabotin
    Orlando Church of Christ
    Orlando, FL
    USA
    August, 16 2012
    The scripture is ever so true that God works all thing together for the good of those who love him. On the 11th of August, I turned 19 as a baptized disciple of Jesus. I have been around since then and so I am well aware of the crisis of 2003.
    I am grateful to God that we are not the “only” church going to heaven because for a very long time that confession was very unsettling and wrapped in pride and arrogance..
    I pray that this will be a new beginning, a fresh start for all of us. That once again we would preach the message for the Cross boldly with love and deep convictions.
    Emmanuel Ekpo
    ICOC (Island Region)
    Lagos, Lagos
    Nigeira
    August, 16 2012
    Let us remember that our respective congregational membership lists are not the ‘book of life’. Regardless of the titles we bear, men and women who have obeyed the bible’s teaching on how to be saved and stay saved are simply Christians. Let’s destroy all barriers in our minds and call people only to the bible. Simply let the ‘strong’ be humble and let the ‘weak’ repent. God bless.
    Ayodele Da-Silva
    Lagos Christian Church
    Lagos, Lagos
    Nigeria
    August, 15 2012
    I’ve been a part of the ICOC churches for 16 years now. I’ve seen MANY mistakes made. As one man, I don’t think I can say whether a group of 100K people is repenting(and perhaps others should not say they are all unrepentant either?), but my church and others I have visited, for the most part, have been (trying to) repent in humility.
    To respond to Pete Hodge, re: planting established cities. In LA, the attitude is changing (though we have been guilty of this). We do mix with Pepperdine and accept we are a fellowship among many. Not sure your meaning about summit needing bible authority.I was there and it was a time celebrating Jesus and his Word, the fellowship, and wonderful worship. Why would you think this is wrong?
    Ben L
    Los Angeles Church of Christ (ICOC)
    Los Angeles, CA
    United States
    August, 15 2012
    I am eternally grateful to God for the gift of salvation that I have received from Him through His Son, Jesus Christ. I am also incredibly grateful for the sacrifice of God’s people in our family of churches (the ICOC). God has done and continues to do great things through us, but let us continue to glorify Him through our hard work and never glorify ourselves for what He does through us. We must remember that since the beginning of creation God has always humbled His people when they become prideful. Let us continually humble ourselves under His mighty hand, continue to work hard and sacrifice and continue to live lives of daily repentance.
    John Michael Roberts
    Greater St. Louis Church
    Ballwin, Missouri
    United States of America
    August, 15 2012
    Greetings! Brothers and sisters, may I be so bold, we waste a lot of our time, energy and efforts turning against one another in the Christian “world,” when we should be using our efforts, energy and zeal, God gave to us, to seek and save sinners in this lost and dying world! Together, may we repent and turn to our God and be at peace with one another and follow Jesus Christ, wholeheartedly, as when we first believed in Jesus Christ, rather than, living by the standard of the world. I truly believe, we will be more happier as a Christian movement, many, many more souls will be saved and our Father in heaven will be glorified! I love you all and take care. Ephesians 3:20-21.
    Jay Buenaventura
    Toronto Church of Christ
    Toronto, Ontario
    Canada
    August, 15 2012
    I am very encouraged by this article! Thank you!
    DeShonda
    Mission
    San Diego, CA
    USA
    August, 15 2012
    Thank you for the International Churches of Christ making every effort to make disciples of all nations, throughout the whole wide world! “I always thank my God for you because of his grace given you in Christ Jesus.” 1 Corinthians 1:4. As newborn children of God, we are growing up and maturing in our faith, knowledge and understanding of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. May our relationship with God, our Father in heaven and our love for one another grow more and more to newer and greater heights because “mercy triumphs over judgment.” James 2. Let us listen to God’s word and proclaim the good news! Amen.
    Jay Buenaventura
    Toronto Church of Christ
    Toronto, Ontario
    Canada
    August, 13 2012
    am so excited to see many who abandoned their faith coming back and live like a disciple of Christ.This shows that it’s not about us but about the Lord Jesus we serve if Leaders truly repented and broken about their sins,that is a Victory for the Church and a pointer for the followers.
    Yemi Sanya
    ICOC,Nigeria
    Ikeja, Lagos
    Nigeria
    August, 13 2012
    I am thankful to God for my becoming a follower of Christ that started in 1975 in a conservative church of Christ that loved me and taught me to love the Word of God. Than, the building of that foundation continued at Harding College and going on a medical mission team to Africa. I have been a part of the ICOC for 26 years. I consider myself to be a part of the universal body of followers of Christ. Let’s be unified in our purpose to help others be saved!
    Sharon (Johns) Plummer
    any Arizona group of believers
    soon to be Prescott, Arizona
    USA
    August, 9 2012
    My monther was baptised at Crossroads in 1975. I was baptised at Crossroads in 1978. I was married at crossroads in 1980. I moved to Boston in 1988 and then Jacksonville in 1991. I had three children baptised in Jacksonville. I’ve witnessed three separate movements. Crossroads, Boston, and the ICOC. I’ve heard this before and seen no difference come of it. While I rejoice that Christ is preached, I hope the current leadership of the ICOC is genuine in what they’re saying now.
    Glenn Boyles
    Argyle Church of Christ
    Jacksonville, FL
    USA
    August, 6 2012
    I came to Christ while with Crossroads church of Christ/Gainesville, FL. It’s good to see more openness among ICOC and mainline Churches of Christ.
    Is it possible from the very beginning we got the cart before the horse when it comes to evangelism and discipleship. A young Christian (yet older physically) should be led to know Jesus Christ intimately from the head to the heart. Consider, no count, the number of times the apostles wrote of Jesus in the epistles. Whether it’s “him, he, Jesus, Lord, Christ Jesus” and see the number of times and get the picture where their messages, the apostles’ doctrine, was focused on. Discipleship is body-life, can I share this link with you all.
    http://frankviola.org/ministrytoday.pdf
    Clark
    Gainesville organic church
    High Springs, FL
    USA
    August, 4 2012
    The core of Christianity is understanding the relationship God wants with each of us and what He has sacrificed to make that possible. God calls us to prove our love for him by obeying his scriptures & loving and serving our fellow man. Whether one calls himself Baptist, Episcopal, Catholic, or simply Christian doesn’t matter as much as how he invests his time, talent, and resources in his own daily relationship with God. Satan wins a battle each time we focus on details (based on our preferences) instead of following God’s basic commands (based in His scriptures). Just repent daily, be baptized, & develop a daily relationship with God which you continually share with others and God will be pleased.
    Rukeitha Williams
    Greater Richmond Church of Christ (ICOC)
    Richmond, VA
    USA
    August, 3 2012
    I have served as an elder in mainline and Christian churches, and attended an ICOC congregation for a time. Regardless of the “title”, churches fail when they lose their focus on our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, and/or do not worship God “in spirit and in truth.” Humble, strong, spirit filled leaders, “rightly dividing the Word” and actively discerning tradition/custom/policy/program from God’s Word provide the Scriptural core values on which to build. (and please Him)
    Don B.
    Rockingham Christian Church
    Ipswich, Ma.
    USA
    August, 3 2012
    Born again 27 years ago in Boston,this is what I have learned: “…men everywhere to pray, lifting up their hands in a holy manner, without anger and arguments,”1Tim2:8;”Get rid of all bitterness and anger..Forgive each other just as God forgave you in Christ.” Eph4:31 and many like this. May God be glorified through the repentance of those who sincerely want to follow Him. THANK you to all who acknowledge the worldly and sinful things that were done. As God grants repentance, may He also guide us as we strive to find His path to help as many as possible find Him and stay faithful to Him.
    Audrey
    Boston
    Boston, MA
    USA
    August, 2 2012
    This is great! It excites me to know that the opinion of our leadership by those outside of our congregation is “humble”. I am proud to be a member of the ICOC from the teen ministry and that my relationship with God has been fed and grown by its members through the good times and the rough times. In regards to instruments I don’t know of any scriptures that command that they not be used, and I’m glad my congregation has a good balance of both. That is definitely a “desputable matter” and should not be a stumbling block for unity in the body. Praise God for his wisdom and his people!
    Timi Martins
    NYCCOC
    Bronx, NY
    USA
    August, 2 2012
    I was baptized as a disciple on June 15th, 1991 in the Toronto Church of Christ. I can honestly say that this article will help so many who have left over the years. All that I read is true and I did experience most of those things over the years. By God’s grace we have been given an incredible opportunity to learn from those mistakes and get back on track spiritually.
    Oswald Chu
    Edmonton Capital City Church of Christ
    Edmonton, Alberta
    Canada
    August, 2 2012
    Jesus Christ was crucified
    so that all of the saints would be unified.
    All as one and each in Him,
    Living upright lives in repentance towards sin.
    Living to honor his holiness
    through love, humility and giving our best.
    So whether MCoC or ICOC,
    or the church that Kip McKean launched recently,
    and all who call on Him with sincere faith,
    let’s be on the same team as we run the race.
    John 17, verses 20 and 21:
    Let’s all unite in the Father, Spirit and Son.
    Rayola Osanya
    New York City Church of Christ
    Jersey City, NJ
    USA
    August, 2 2012
    I agree with Roy Davison, long time friend. There are basic differences that remain, traceable to failure to respect authority. The indifference regarding the use or non-use of mechanical instruments in worship, rhythmic clapping in accompaniment with the singing are two examples. When we worship without Bible authority, we open the door to division when some honor the Bible pattern and other ignore it. Let us remember that Jesus did nothing on His own, without the Father’s word. We must do the same today if we would be ONE, as He and the Father are one (John 17).
    Alvin Jennings
    College Hill, Fort Worth, TX
    Hurst, Texas
    USA
    August, 2 2012
    I was a member and preacher in a mainline church for 20 years, ten years ago a group and I moved to to the icoc church because of the unity , enthusiasm and commitment to making Jesus the standard of every disciple. We fellowship and have had joint services with mainline churches to the benefit of both. What I see as in the ICOc is a family of churches with who have different practices and opinions yet still committed to each other in the common goal of spreading the Gospel.
    Horacio Piccininno
    Central New Jersey
    Manalapn, New Jersey
    Usa
    August, 2 2012
    Queridos hermanos(as), Llevo disfrutando 12 anos como discipula de Cristo y lo unico valioso para mi es ver como Dios trabaja increiblemente en cada tiempo, yo confie tanto en El y en su trabajo perfecto, asi los hombres nos equivoquemos.€ Dios Jehova tiene la potestad de hacer o deshacer algo, todo absolutamente todo es para acercarnos mas a El, deberiamos aprender como se quiere mostrar y que debemos aprender cada vez que nos corrige para nuestro propio bien, es la unica manera de formarnos en Cristo, puliendonos, sigamos juntos en esta causa, valoremos el costo tan grande en la Cruz, Dios quiere lo mejor para sus hijos. Amo a Dios, amo a Cristo, adoro su Espiritu, amo nuestra Iglesia, amo a los perdidos.
    Elizabeth Sevilla
    ICIQ
    Quito, Pichincha
    Ecuadpor
    August, 2 2012
    I believe that as time has passed we have all learned and mature significantly, we are a group that strives to serve God and love people. We made mistakes in the past, we are making mistakes now and we will make them in the future. Ultimately, we need to forgive and practice grace with one another. It’s easy to point fingers, but we must realize that we are all mess. We as individuals need to deal with our past hurts and heal before we can move forward and I think that we have taken the steps to move to a greater unity and ultimate focus-to love God and help people
    Yesenia Hernandez-Mackie
    Bakersfield Church of Christ
    Bakersfield, CA
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    I had my third heart attack at the Gonzalez convention center July 4th, 2012 and I spoke to God on the registration floor as I clinged onto life “I know you are a pure and Holy God but let me see your mountain”. He was good and let me and what I took out of it was no matter our mistakes as a movement, the ” Cross ” is the answer. Lets cling onto that promise he gave us as the kingdom belongs to us and those he calls into it. To God be the Glory always Family.
    Juan de Dios Hernandez
    Metro- Las Americas
    Chicago, Illinois
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    Thank you for opening wide your hearts to communication with the International Churches of Christ! I stand in awe of God for His miraculous work at the World Discipleship Summit in San Antonio, Texas. Truly, a celebration of our lives to God, our Father in heaven, forever and ever. Ever since the day of my baptism 21 years ago, I strove to follow God with a clear conscience because Jesus Christ is my standard of living! I love my brothers and sisters in God’s kingdom because we are stronger together! I pray that the day will come soon, where the whole wide world, will be together as one big family, worshipping and praising our God together and winning souls for Jesus Christ! Peace be with you. Read Matthew 28:16-20
    Jay Buenaventura
    Toronto Church of Christ
    Toronto, Ontario
    Canada
    August, 1 2012
    If we are to love God with all of our heart, soul, mind and strength, and likewise love our neighbor as we love ourselves, God will lead us to victory. All of us. If we are really Jesus’ disciples, there will also be those who are opposed to what we do no matter what. I think we all want a life of impact for our God. May he grant us the strength!
    Ken Watson
    Auburn Tuskegee Christian Church
    Auburn, AL
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    I have known several people who have been associated with Boston Movement-ICOC movement. They became disolusioned with various things, most with the authoritarian system which got them labeled a cult. Like other movements they are reacting to some extreme positions by many of us in main line churches. Usually when people react they over act. This same thing is happening among our fellowship at large today. Instead of making adjustments needed, some are willing to throw everything out and start over.
    The brother who can’t understand why these groups can’t go into a city and work with existing congregations. Anyone with a new idea is not welcome.
    Ray Pippin
    Madison CofC
    Gallatin, Tennessee
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    I was a part of the ICOC. They’ve done many wonderful things, to help keep me encouraged, and around that time, I hadn’t committed too many sins, and I was very humble and calm-more than I am now-and I was fully able to withstand the hardships I faced. I still wasn’t perfect, but I was on better standing than I am now. But then I left and went back to the mainline COC, due to the harsh discipleship of the ICOC. Later, I saw how much of a mess the mainline COC is, in many congregations and my own. That’s when I began to become discouraged because of these selfish divisions. I’m starting to understand that even we call ourselves the one true church, but we’re also a big mess! There are things we can learn from the ICOC on unity & character.
    Jerome Hughes
    Downtown Church of Christ
    Norfolk, Virginia
    23504
    August, 1 2012
    When I lived in Orlando, FL you could find churches that had been devastated by this movement. It all comes down to a question of authority for anything done in the worship assembly of the Church. We need to return to the saying of old, “Speak where the Bible speaks and be silent where the Bible is silent”. People continue to use the Old Testament as proof for instrumental music but they leave out all the animal sacrifices that were ordained along with the family of priests from the line of Levi. It has been proven without a doubt that the first century Church did not have instrumental music in their worship service. As I said before, it is all about Authority.
    Dwayne Brown
    Bell Avenue Church of Christ
    Amarillo, TX
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    Brothers and Sisters, (Both Main and ICOC) we must always remeber that our God created the Church, and his Church is perfect. The problem and always will be that he placed us imperfect people in it to learn how to be perfect. As we all know, this does not come overnight and we all have a lot to learn. Learning from our past mistakes is and always will be a great start. I for one am extremely grateful for the steps that our leaders in the ICOC cooperation are taking. I believe that on both sides, we will be better for it.
    Max Maxwell
    Phoenix Valley Church of Christ
    San Tan Valley, AZ
    US
    August, 1 2012
    It was through the Boston Movement, as some called it, thaat I found my own relationship with Jesus. My loyalty is to Him, first and foremost, then to the local fellowship of believers, whatever they are called. As Jesus challenged us “Let anyone who is without sin throw the first stone” (John 8:7)
    Robin
    Boston CoC
    Arlington, MA
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    I wish to thank the Chronicle for printing this article! I grew up in the mainline church, graduated for Oklahoma Chrisitan in ’86 and became apart of the icoc in ’87. I very grateful for my strong upbringing in the coc. And I’m very grateful for the discipling I’ve received in the icoc.
    Jill Wood Garcia
    Greater St. Louis Church – ICOC
    St. Louis, MO
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    I spent about 4 years being a “disciple”. I was baptized when I was 19 years old. Now, about 8 years later I look with regret this time. Under the assumption that the whole world works like the US, this movement used to export its system. People without almost any psychological background trying to help on that; people without any leadership skill leading massive groups of people and so on. I was a teenager leader trying to “help” guys with serious issues in their families, thinking that praying and reading the Bible had to solve everything: total mistake. As the article says this system burned me out. I think that never have really changed. The root of this “church” is about a successful business model, it never has been about love.
    Nicolas Bambach
    Non
    Santiago, RM
    Chile
    August, 1 2012
    I saw a question about musical instruments and whether they’re permitted for worship. God is an unchanging God. He doesn’t embrace us using them and then reject us the next time. David danced before the Lord and there were instruments of flute and Lyre used. It doesn’t say God was displeased with this. God is Love. If your expressions are out of an overflow of love for God then it is acceptable. Make a joyful noise… I personally prefer a capella to a lot of loud instruments and such but it’s not all about me… I would think your group could incorporate a little of each if there’s diversity and differing tastes.
    Paul Ecklund
    Greenville CoC
    Easley, SC
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    A very judicious and balanced article that captures accurately the mood of of our church family. Our leadership has for the most part responded humbly to divine discipline and our congregations have learned that the self aggrandizing boasts of men drunk on their own acclaim does not glorify our Master. Long may our learning continue, long may our growth continue and forever may Jesus be exalted!!!!!
    andy boakye
    manchester
    manchester, lancs
    united kingdom
    August, 1 2012
    In John 17:20, Jesus prayed for unity of belief. Sadly in the United States, Churches practice a for form of “institutional and social discrimination and desegregation” by claiming to pursue true worship… when the actual reality is they want to to worship the way they want to worship according to some arcane traditions of questionable origins.
    John 17:20 is about unity in beliefs, not a dogged pursuit of differences to keep people at odds with one another, while repeatedly rehashing old wounds without reconciliation, love or mercy.
    Gary McFarland
    South Florida Church of Christ
    Pompano Beach, FL
    United States
    August, 1 2012
    This is vry warming to my heart! The healing that began many years ago, has made this possible. It is so encouraging to hear that so many disciples are still so fired up for God. I will have been a disciple for 15 years this coming March, and I couldn’t be more proud of the things we have overcome and the convictions we cling to, no matter what has come out way.
    Dori Acevedo
    Pioneer Valley Church of Christ
    Chicopee, Massachusetts
    United States
    August, 1 2012
    The Conference (Summit) in San Antonio was truly life-changing. Having been in the ICOC or that type of congregation for 33 years it is so encouuraging to see our churches being being led with humility. I have many ties to the mainline churches….my mother, brother, a best friend, etc…. I believe in my heart that God wants to work in mainline and AND ICOC congregations. When I visit family for extended periods of time I attend the mainline church. My husband has his roots in the mainline church, and I’m grateful for the man he is today because of that. Wherever we worship in spirit and truth, God will work if we humbly love and follow his word with all our heart, loving our neighbors as ourselves.
    Robin Wadsworth
    Lighthouse Church. ICOC
    Los Angeles, California
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    Patrick Odum of the Northwest coC in Chicago preached at the 1st historic Chicago Celebration (article: “Chicago Celebration brings 1,600 together; highlights diversity, unity”.)
    Though the Chicago Christ was not officially invited as a congregation (no hard feelings:`), a handful of us did attend at the invitation of friends who had gone back to a mainline congregation. You can imagine the reactions our name tags received in fellowship!
    But Patrick’s message was inspired, and I’ll never forget: *we are all family at the foot of the cross.* This applied in Chicago as it did recently in San Antonio (it was amazing!), and applies to all who read this. The Lord Jesus prayed for unity among believers. We can all help fulfill his words.
    Fred Ichinose
    Grand Rapids Church of Christ
    Grand Rapids, Michigan
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    Incredibly proud of the conference! I was not part of the church when the crisis hit, but from what I see at our church today, I feel like this is the right place for me to be challenged and grown spiritually. ICOC has helped me build a relationship with God and continues to nurture me to live a pure and Godly life that no other churches I have been to have been able to.
    Valerie
    Manhattan
    Bayside, NY
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    Dear Brothers and Sisters – Thank you for publishing this article. I grew up in the church of Chirst in Texas and went to ACU. While on an ACU mission program to Costa Rica I met up with some brothers from the Boston church. This encounter changed my life forever. I decided to move to Boston to be further trained and later returned to Latin America to plant and lead churches. I am grateful for my mainline roots and actually stepped out of the ICOC for a time and returned to the mainline. While in this rural church I met some people who made a major impact on the lives of my family. I am now back in the ICOC and see that we have a great and wonderful future together with our sister church from the Restoration Movement.
    Bart Moyers
    Denver Church of Christ (ICOC)
    Denver, CO
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    I’m the rare person who regularly worships and serves with both an ICOC and a mineline congregation. I can honestly say that I know first hand what should be obvious to all – neither congregation is perfect – but I learn from and serve my brothers and sisters in both.
    Charles Smith
    East End coC, NYCcoC
    Long Island, NY
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    As people who follow Christ, there are several occupational hazards we live with, including pride and its harmful effects. We have much more in common as restorationists than we have differences. I could list 66 books to start! I left my denominational past in 1980 when baptized in the Boston Movement. 32 years later, with all the ups and downs, I am grateful for grace that is still mine in the ICOC. That I can approach a Holy God, who loves me as much as he loves anyone, including Jesus, is amazing. How can we not embrace all who, in truth, share this indescribable gift? God saved us to tell others how great He is, not how much better we are than someone else. This is a big part of what I have learned through the years by God’s grace.
    Jerry Maday
    Worcester County Church of Christ
    Worcester, MA
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    I’m very encouraged by the article and some of the comments made in response to the article. Although I can understand some of the comments of concern and the disheartening differences between the MCoC and the ICOC, everybody should check their own hearts for roots of bitterness and be willing to forgive. I recognize the heart behind the opposition of using instruments during worship; that we want to worship God in truth and spirit. And if the use of instrument is sinful, I can understand that someone feels very strongly about banning them from service. I am sure that there are more things that separate us, but I strongly believe that we have more in common than we might recognize now. May God have mercy on all of us. Lead us towards unity.
    Katja Eliana Percoski
    Berlin ICOC
    Berlin, Germany
    Germany
    August, 1 2012
    I am so proud to be part of the movement. I was baptised in December 2000, by the grace of God I met the leaders of the Church which had been planted some months earlier. I really Thank God for giving me the opportunity. It had been painful to me to see how the devil can strike but today I am over-joyed to hear and see how repentant is our church with regard to past mistakes. God always blesses a repentant spirit and will definitely bless the ICOC. Let us, like never before, be united in seeking and save the lost hand in hand with all those who repented, got baptised and are striving to remain righteous and obedient to our Lord Jesus Christ.
    Serge Gahungu
    Eglise du Christ de Bujumbura
    Bujumbura, Burundi
    Burundi
    August, 1 2012
    I believe our unity will be a reality when we all focus to live the life Jesus lived (becoming like him) and preach the gospel he preached (1Timothy4:16).
    Tewolde
    Nairobi Christian Church
    Nairobi, Nairobi
    Kenya
    August, 1 2012
    Well, at least we are starting to speak to/at each other on one page. That’s a start. Thank you God, thank you brothers and sisters, and thank you Christian Chronicle.
    David Allen
    NYC Church of Christ
    Brooklyn, NY
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    Having been a part of the ICOC for 20years now,i am now more convinced than ever befor the God desires and is actually calling us all(main-line,icoc,…)to unity of spirit and purpose to win over lost souls around us and re-build a functional family of Christian society in this decayed world.Can we grab this opportunity!!
    Fredrick Odhis
    Nairobi
    Nairobi, Kenya
    Kenya
    August, 1 2012
    Examine yourselves, whether ye be in the faith; prove your own selves. Know ye not your own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates?But I trust that ye shall know that we are not reprobates.2Cor13:5 Prove all things; hold fast that which is good – ¶ Then said Jesus to those Jews which believed on him, If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed; And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.Joh8:32
    Eric Asante Obeng
    Central Johannseburg Churches of Christ
    Jhb, JHB
    south Africa
    August, 1 2012
    I look forward to and pray for the day where we can all collectively use the money and resources of Churhes of Christ and ICOC and other alike for the common purpose of expanding the gospel into new territory to bring glory to Jesus. How amazing would that be if we can all use one directory and give freedom to all our people to partnership with each other. I believe the members in each fellowship want this but it will be up to the “leaders” to make this happen.
    Edgar Sanchez
    LAICC
    Los Angeles, CA
    USA
    August, 1 2012
    I am encouraged to see progress toward unity. I am also somewhat dismayed to see that some people are still suspicious and display negative or critical sentiments. I even know of a church … that still has info on its website labeling the ICOC as a cult. That’s unfortunate. I was part of two ICOC congregations for close to 20 years. I love the people. Mistakes were made. Many positive changes have occurred. We are so much alike today. I appreciate the fellowship occurring between the ICOC and the churches of Christ in SW Ontario. We are all God’s family and we should act like it. Let’s not allow Satan to cause division.
    Chris Pople
    Waterloo Church of Christ
    Waterloo, Ontario
    Canada
    July, 31 2012
    This article accurately tells the story. I have seen the change and it is refreshing. I will have to confess as a former member of ICOC and currently main line part-time minister, I made some mistakes myself that may have lead to a polarization. I could have done more to promote unity.
    Donn Selvidge
    Northside church of Christ.
    Mattoon, IL.
    USA
    July, 31 2012
    I just have one question based off a quote in this article. The quote is:
    “Unlike the a cappella fellowship, a majority of ICOC churches use instruments in worship assemblies.
    “We don’t really have a concept of instrumental or non-instrumental,” Lamb said. “All of our churches love and sing a cappella music beautifully. Many will also use instruments when the occasion and talent calls for it. We are mostly trying to focus on what will exalt God.””
    I understand the focus being on exalting God, My question is where do they get the Biblical Authority to authorize using instruments in worship?
    Bryan Turvaville
    Bell Avenue Church of Christ
    Amarillo, TX
    USA
    July, 31 2012
    As a member of an ICOC congregation who has studied the Restoration Movement and bemoans the movement’s first split in the early 1900s, it hurts to read some of the comments here and see my fellow brothers and sister respond to each other in this way, something I have done to my shame in the past. My hope and prayer is that we all become united again (ICOC, Mainline, Disciples of Christ, Christian Churches, ICC) just as Jesus intended.
    Atte Enyenihi
    New York City Church of Christ
    Brooklyn, New York
    USA
    July, 31 2012
    Thank you Christian Chronicle for this update article. I hope and pray that the ICOC has changed in the ways that weren’t aligned with scripture. On the other hand, we of the mainline CofC’s need to be ready to extend mercy and grace, and not get so caught up in the “they’re wrong and we’re right” mentality. Our own history condemns us for being just as arrogant in some ways.
    I challenge every brother and sister to pray for us all, mainstream and ICOC alike, then “make every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace”, while allowing the HS to do His work in each of us.
    Donna Heck
    Metro
    Gresham, OR
    USA
    July, 31 2012
    Honestly I don’t know much about this particular movement, but the idea that “we are the one true church” and will have nothing to do with the “mainline Churches of Christ” is not unusual within our ranks. Every reader knows full well that the congregation down the road won’t have anything to do with you now and haven’t for years (typically the other congregations choice of course.) A few members might actually meet occasionally at area wide singing, youth activities or gospel meeting at some locations, but be honest, we don’t even like each other much less assume we are on the same journey with the same hope with the same eternal destiny.
    Mike Nance
    Central church of Christ
    Lufkin, Texas
    United States
    July, 31 2012
    Churches of Christ still are walking around wounded based on the hurts of 30 years ago. The Boston Movement/ICOC co-opted discipleship and made it a dirty word. Ditto with accountability. Both of these still need to be reclaimed by Churches of Christ, because without them we’ve failed to challenge each other to grow, out of fear that the tools could not be applied without sending *us* off into cult-like territory.
    Jonathan Clemens
    Capital CofC
    Olympia, WA
    USA
    July, 31 2012
    I dream of a day when we can truly be united with each other -with one goal in mind of seeking and saving the lost. I found the Lord and was baptized with my husband in 2004. With help from my Beautiful, God Fearing Church Family- God has turned our lives around. I am so grateful for his message being brought to me in Truth/Love by the members of the ICOC. God truly used these wonderful people to show me his love/Grace and Forgiveness. I do not know the church of a decade ago, I only see a repentant spirit and a love for the lost. My gratitude toward God spurs me on to share with anyone who will listen of his love and gift to us. If we united in this Spirt of the Gospel – Satan would be the one to LOSE
    Dawn
    Desert Cities Church of Christ – ICOC
    Indio, CA
    USA
    July, 31 2012
    To the editors:
    What I still see in the ICOC is what I saw when they were the “Boston Movement.” (I served a church in Massachusetts from 1981-1987.) They can say all they want about working with mainline churches, but at least in my experience none of their members would dare set foot in, much less place membership with, a “mainline” church of Christ. I am convinced they still don’t think we are committed enough–whatever that means.
    Bob Weber
    Chatham Church of Christ
    Chatham, NJ
    USA
    July, 31 2012
    Those of us who have assisted souls devastated spiritually by this movement know that McKean’s “singular control” is not what made them a cult. Extreme differences remain between this movement, and the church that Jesus built.
    Roy Davison
    Burcht, Belgium
    Alken, Limburg
    Belgium
    July, 31 2012
    I wondered what had happened to this movement. Really concerned they are on the rise again. By their going into cities were there are established congregations, they are continuing to suggest that they are the only ones holding to the truth of God’s word.
    How much better it would be if they sought to help and encourage these long established congregations to develop, under the leadership that is in place within those congregations.
    The comment from Evertt Huffard that he witnessed a “humble spirit” among those present at the ‘summit’ (Biblical authority for summits please), reminds me of a brother who told the church in the UK he had met the leaders of the Movement back in the 1980’s that they were “okay.” The rest is history.
    Pete Hodge
    Skelmersdale church of Christ
    Up Holland, Lancashire
    United Kingdom
    July, 31 2012
    Any time a man in the churches of Christ becomes a strutting rooster, he has lost. The Church (people) will lose, because man’s ego has failed them.
    Christ does not change, he is there to pick us up!!!
    Barbara Howard
    McMinnville Church of Christ
    McMinnville, Oregon
    USA
    July, 31 2012

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