The Catholic Church believes that when Adam sinned (Genesis chapter 3) his trespass caused a reign of death that ruled over all men. That view is correct (Romans 5:17).
The Christian churches do not believe God would hold blameless men accountable for Adam’s sin, therefore they do not believe Adam’s trespass caused death to reign over anyone. That is why the Christian churches refuse to teach that little babies must be baptized to take away Adam’s sin. That view is absolutely reasonable, true, and correct.
How can both views be valid? Because there was a Man of great love who had all power and authority to immediately annul Adam’s transgression by accepting the responsibility for his trespass himself. His name is Jesus. Jesus abolished Adam’s reign of death and established the reign of eternal life by giving up his own life on a cross to die as a sacrifice in the place of all other men. Jesus’ cross took place about 33 AD. However, the cross was an established fact in the mind of God before the foundation of the world (1 Peter 1:18–20). All of this is revealed in Romans 5:12–21, and it is clearly explained in this book. When you read the first part of the verses in Romans 5:15-21, it describes Adam’s sin and the terrible consequences of his trespass. However, the last part of each verse explains how the cross annulled Adam’s trespass, forgave all men from all sin, if they will accept forgiveness on God’s conditions, and offers all men eternal life.